Household energy storage equipment is to store electrical energy and use it when needed - also known as electric energy storage products or "battery energy storage system" (BESS), hereinafter referred to as home storage. The core component of home storage is a rechargeable battery, usually a lithium-ion battery or a lead-acid battery. The other components are inverters, a control system that can intelligently control charging and discharging.
As energy storage enters ordinary households, we can realize the concept of distributed power generation, ease the power transmission pressure of the grid, and reduce the use of fossil fuels, which is a necessary decentralization measure to achieve carbon neutrality or zero neutrality.
Before exploring home storage in detail, let's first understand the development history of energy storage system (ESS):
As early as the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. Department of Energy launched an energy storage system project, led by Sandia National Laboratories, to conduct research on how to store nuclear energy. In the 1970s, as the United States was facing a severe oil crisis, the research focus of Sandia Laboratories turned to renewable energy that could replace petroleum. By the 1980s, the U.S. Department of Energy further expanded the Sandia laboratory research program-exploring battery development and testing projects while creating renewable energy. Since then, Sandia Laboratories has undertaken the exploration of energy storage projects. However, the concept of energy storage at that time was still at the national level and did not involve commercial or civilian use.
In 1991, the project was upgraded to a grid battery energy storage project, and at the same time began to do some tests of electric energy storage facilities for commercial use. During this period, the International Lead-Zinc Organization and the Electric Power Research Institute also participated in the research. By 1996, the energy storage system had begun to take shape and began to expand to commercial and civilian use.
In terms of strategic opportunities for home energy storage, Europe and the United States are currently ahead of China, and their demand for household photovoltaic penetration and power stability is more advanced. Therefore, the overseas home energy storage market is more mature than domestic ones. Huanew Power is the priority market for the brand to expand.
Advantages of home storage system:
Overcoming power transmission loss: Power loss in power transmission from power stations to households is unavoidable, especially in densely populated metropolises where power stations cannot be built, resulting in greater power transmission losses. However, if households are encouraged to generate and store electricity independently and reduce external power transmission, the transmission loss can be greatly reduced and the efficiency of power grid transmission can be realized.
Grid support: If the home energy storage is connected to the grid and the surplus power generated by the household is input into the grid, it can greatly relieve the pressure on the grid: 1) Provide power supply response during peak power consumption hours, which can reduce the use of low-efficiency diesel engine power generation; 2) use and local The power frequency that matches the power grid, such as 50Hz or 60Hz.
Reduce the use of fossil energy: Households store their own power generation, which can greatly improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. At the same time, fossil energy such as natural gas, coal, oil and diesel power generation technologies will be phased out.
Reduce energy costs: Households generate and store electricity independently, which can greatly reduce grid electricity consumption.
Avoid peak electricity prices: Energy storage batteries can store electricity during low-peak electricity consumption periods and discharge during peak electricity consumption periods.
Realize electricity independence: the family stores solar power during the day and uses it at night, and it can also be used as a backup power supply in case of a sudden power outage.
Environmental impact of batteries: Early home storage systems generally used lead-acid batteries, which have the advantage of being highly recyclable—99% of lead-acid batteries in the United States are recyclable. However, the lead and sulfuric acid electrolytes in lead-acid batteries are extremely harmful to the environment. In addition, lead-acid batteries have a short service life and are gradually replaced by lithium-ion batteries.
However, although lithium-ion batteries have a long service life, they cannot be recycled (or it is difficult to recycle them), and some lithium-ion batteries contain nickel, cadmium, and manganese, which will also pollute the environment.
High upfront costs: Batteries are costly today, ranging from $400-700/kWh.
Complicated installation: Some home storage systems require additional inverters and intelligent monitoring equipment.
Large footprint: The size of a system is about 500x250x700mm (not counting solar panels). At this stage, only single-family houses can meet the space requirements.