The so-called storage battery is an electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases electrical energy when necessary. It uses a lead substrate grid filled with spongy lead (also called a grid) as the negative electrode, and a lead substrate grid filled with lead dioxide as the positive electrode, and uses dilute sulfuric acid with a density of 1.26--1.33g/mlg/ml as the electrolyte. When the battery is discharging, metallic lead is the negative electrode and an oxidation reaction occurs to produce lead sulfate; the lead dioxide is the positive electrode and a reduction reaction occurs to produce lead sulfate. When the battery is charged with direct current, elemental lead and lead dioxide are respectively generated at the two poles. After removing the power source, it returns to the state before discharge, forming a chemical battery. The battery can be charged and discharged repeatedly. Its cell voltage is 2V. The battery is a battery pack composed of one or more cells, referred to as storage battery, the most common is 6V, and there are 2V, 4V, 8V, 24V storage batteries. For example, the battery used in the car (commonly known as the battery) is a 12V battery pack with 6 batteries connected in series. Regarding traditional dry-charged batteries (such as car dry-charged batteries, motorcycle dry-charged batteries, etc.) after a period of use, distilled water should be added to keep the dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte at a density of about 1.28g/ml; for maintenance-free batteries, its use Do not add distilled water until the end of life. According to the survey conducted by the editor of Optics Valley of Jiaotong University on conventional battery manufacturers in the market:
There are different ways to classify batteries. The classification methods can be roughly divided into three categories. The first category: According to the type of electrolyte, it includes: alkaline batteries. The electrolyte is mainly potassium hydroxide fire solution-based batteries: such as: alkali Sexual zinc-manganese batteries (commonly known as alkaline-manganese batteries or alkaline batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, etc. Acid batteries mainly use aqueous sulfuric acid as the medium, such as zinc-manganese dry batteries (some consumers also call them acid batteries), seawater batteries, etc.; organic electrolyte batteries, mainly batteries that use organic solutions as the medium, such as lithium ion batteries, Lithium-ion batteries, etc. The second category: According to the nature of work and storage methods, including: primary batteries, also known as primary batteries, that are batteries that cannot be recharged, such as zinc-manganese dry batteries, lithium primary batteries, etc.; secondary batteries, rechargeable batteries, such as nickel-metal hydride Batteries, lithium ion batteries, cadmium nickel batteries, etc.; batteries are used to refer to lead-acid batteries, which are also secondary batteries; fuel power batteries, that is, active materials are continuously added to the battery from the outside when the battery is working, such as hydrogen-oxygen fuel power batteries Storage battery, that is, the battery is not in direct contact with the electrolyte when the battery is stored, and the electrolyte is not added until the battery is in use, such as silver magnesium batteries, also known as seawater batteries. The third category: according to the positive and negative materials used in the battery, including: zinc series batteries, such as zinc-manganese batteries, zinc-silver batteries, etc.; nickel series batteries, such as nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, etc.: lead series batteries, such as lead-acid batteries Etc.; lithium ion batteries, lithium manganese batteries; manganese dioxide series batteries, such as zinc manganese batteries, alkaline manganese batteries, etc.; air (oxygen) series batteries, such as zinc air batteries.
2. UPS battery
UPS is called an uninterruptible power supply because it can quickly switch to the inverter state when there is a power outage, so that the computer in use will not lose important files because of a sudden power outage without time for storage in the future. It is not used as a backup power source. If you just want to use electricity when the power is out, just buy an inverter. Generally, maintenance-free lead-acid batteries are mostly used in household UPS.
3. Lithium iron phosphate battery
Lithium iron phosphate battery is the safest high specific energy battery in the lithium ion battery family. The discharge voltage of lithium iron phosphate batteries is very stable, generally 3.2V, the voltage changes rapidly in the later stage of discharge (importantly refers to the remaining 10% capacity), and the cut-off voltage is generally 2.5V. The ambient temperature, especially the low temperature, will affect the discharge capacity of the lithium iron phosphate battery: the discharge capacity at -20°C is 45% of the normal temperature capacity, -10°C is 65% of the normal temperature, and -5°C is 80% of the normal temperature. ℃ is 90% of normal temperature, and the change in discharge capacity from 0℃ to 20℃ is very small. The low-temperature performance of lithium iron phosphate batteries is better than that of lead-acid batteries.
4 Super battery
The super battery engine starting power supply is a device that can supply starting power to the internal combustion engine through rapid energy storage when the traditional battery equipped with the internal combustion engine fails and cannot be started.
Jiaotong University Optics Valley solar battery is the application of ‘battery’ in solar photovoltaic power generation. At present, there are four types of lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, ordinary lead-acid batteries, gel batteries and alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries. Currently widely used solar batteries in China are mainly: lead-acid maintenance-free batteries and gel batteries. These two types of batteries are very suitable for reliable solar power because of their inherent maintenance-free characteristics and less pollution to the environment. System, especially unattended workstations.
Ordinary lead-acid batteries require frequent maintenance and their environmental pollution is relatively high, so they are mainly suitable for use in maintenance-capable or low-end situations.
Although alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries have good low temperature, overcharge and overdischarge performance, they are only suitable for special occasions due to their higher price.
With the widespread use of solar photovoltaic power generation systems, more and more people pay more and more attention to batteries as a supporting battery.
Jiaotong University Optics Valley solar battery has the following characteristics
1 Relatively good deep cycle capability, with good overcharge and overdischarge capabilities.
2Long life, special process design and long life battery guaranteed by colloidal electrolyte.
3 Suitable for different environmental requirements, such as batteries that can be used normally under different conditions such as high altitude, high temperature, and low temperature.
Sunlight shines on the solar modules during the day, causing the solar modules to have a certain range of DC voltage, which converts the light energy into electrical energy, and then transmits it to the intelligent controller. After the intelligent controller’s overcharge protection, the electrical energy from the solar modules is transferred. It is transported to storage battery for storage; and storage requires storage battery. The so-called storage battery is an electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases electrical energy when necessary.
The important components of the battery are as follows:
Anode plate (lead peroxide, PbO2)--->active material
Cathode plate (sponge lead. Pb)--->active material
Electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid)--->sulfuric acid (H2SO4) + water (H2O)
Others (liquid plug, cap, etc.)
The use and maintenance of solar batteries in Optics Valley of Jiaotong University
(1) Suitable working temperature is 15～20℃
(2) The method of solar battery connection is as follows: connect the positive electrode and the positive electrode, and the negative electrode and the negative electrode of the solar battery. In this way, the power of the solar battery will be doubled, and the voltage is the same as the voltage of a solar battery. The two poles of the solar battery must not be short-circuited (to meet each other).
(3) For the solar battery that is newly installed or recharged for the first time, it is charged for a longer period of time, which is the initial charge and should be charged at a current of 1/10 of the rated capacity. Before installation, you must measure whether the battery is sufficient. If the power is insufficient, please charge the battery for more than 816 hours in a sunny place or use AC power to fully charge the battery. Strictly prevent over-discharge charging. When charging normally with alternating current, it is best to use the hierarchical charging method, that is, at the initial stage of charging, use a larger current constant current equalization, charge to equalization voltage and constant voltage and switch to the conventional constant voltage floating charging method after time.
(4) Keep the battery clean. The installed solar battery pole should be coated with petroleum jelly to prevent corrosion of the pole.
(5) Configure on-line monitoring and management technology for solar batteries, conduct online measurement and analysis of internal resistance of solar batteries, find defects in batteries in time, and perform maintenance in time.
(6) To prevent the solar battery from freezing and cracking in winter and from direct sunlight in summer, the solar battery should be placed in a cool, ventilated place.
Jiaotong University Optics Valley photovoltaic off-grid power generation system is a power generation system that uses the principle of photoelectric effect to convert solar energy into electrical energy. It is usually composed of solar cell components, controllers, battery packs, and DC/AC inverters. The purpose of the solar cell module is to convert solar energy into electric energy, supply load work or charge the battery pack; the purpose of the controller is to protect the charging and discharging of the battery pack; the battery pack is used to store electric energy; the purpose of the inverter is to convert the direct current Convert to alternating current. At night or on a cloudy or rainy day, when the solar cell components cannot work, the battery pack is used to supply power to the load.
The working mode of the battery can be divided into two types: recycle use and float charge use. It is often in the working state of frequent charging and discharging, that is, cyclic use; often in the charging state, it is used for floating charge, which can make up for the capacity loss of the battery due to self-discharge. VRLA batteries used in photovoltaic power generation systems belong to a recycling method.
To make the battery system have high reliability, firstly choose the battery correctly. UPS and communication battery are different in design: some batteries have better cycle characteristics; some batteries are suitable for starting; some batteries are suitable for low-temperature environments; Some batteries are suitable for small current discharge and so on. The editor of Optics Valley of Jiaotong University reminds everyone that when choosing batteries, it is very necessary to understand the differences between the processes and the use of various batteries. First of all, we must fully understand the needs of the users themselves. For example, the capacity requirements of the backup power system, the frequency of use, the environment of use, important uses, service life, reliability requirements, instantaneous discharge rate, rectifier specifications and other battery-related performance requirements. Secondly, we must understand the electrical performance of the battery, including product design parameters (the battery model, appearance size, rated capacity, rated voltage, weight, weight ratio energy, volume ratio energy, design life, number of positive and negative plates, positive and negative plates Thickness ratio, electrolyte density, plate type, grid material, etc.), product electrical performance parameters, product actual service life, installation and use environment, performance and price of different models, and warranty periods for different types of products.
JUNLEE Group is an integrated full power energy factory that specializes in Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), Lead-Acid Battery, Battery pack, EV battery, Energy Storage Battery, Energy storage power station, Power pack Gel battery, PV Inverter and Solar system.
Production capacity reach 200000 KVaH per month. Products apply to Electric vehicles,electric mobility, solar & wind energy storage system, UPS, backup power, telecommunication, medical equipment and lighting.
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