Perovskite-based cells are expected to account for more than half of the solar cell market by 2030, said Miyazaka Riki, a professor of photoelectrochemistry and energy at Toin University of Yokohama in Japan.

For a long time, battery conversion efficiency has been the main factor affecting the efficiency of solar power generation. In view of the unique crystal structure of perovskite composite oxides, which can significantly improve the efficiency of solar cells, the research and development of solar cells around perovskite is in full swing. On June 22, the National University of Singapore research team announced that it achieved a conversion efficiency of 24.35% on a perovskite solar panel with an effective area of 1 square centimeter, breaking the previous world record of 23.7%.

Inexpensive new light-absorbing material

It is understood that most solar panels currently use traditional silicon-based and cadmium telluride thin films, the former can only absorb a small part of the solar spectrum, and the latter is too expensive and will have a negative impact on the environment.
As a new light-absorbing material, perovskite is regarded as the most potential material choice for solar cells due to its advantages of high efficiency, low cost, low energy consumption, and multiple application scenarios. Cells made of perovskite have higher absorption coefficients, allowing them to capture a wider range of photon energies across the sunlight spectrum, thereby delivering more power.
Perovskite cell production is more sustainable than silicon cells. Removing impurities in silicon requires high temperature and a lot of energy, which will generate a lot of carbon emissions, and there are certain requirements for size; while perovskite cells are very thin, can be painted or sprayed on the surface, and the production cost is relatively low.
According to a Stanford University analysis, perovskite components can be manufactured at just $0.25 per square foot, compared with about $2.5 per square foot for equivalent silicon components.
Perovskite cells can be used not only in outdoor solar panels, but also in indoor IoT power devices, even in low light.
The US CNBC news network pointed out that compared with the 21% efficiency of standard commercial silicon-based cells, the efficiency of laboratory perovskite cells based only on perovskite has reached 25.7%, while the perovskite-silicon combined with silicon The tandem cell efficiency is even as high as 31.25%.

"Perovskite + silicon" is more efficient

LONGi Green Energy recently announced that it has achieved a conversion efficiency of 33.5% for crystalline silicon-perovskite stacked cells on commercial-grade textured CZ silicon wafers, certified by the European solar energy testing agency ESTI. This is so far the highest efficiency of crystalline silicon-perovskite stacked cells of commercial grade CZ silicon wafers in the world.
US solar equipment manufacturer CubicPV has been developing perovskite-silicon tandem cells since 2019, which consist of a bottom silicon layer and a top perovskite layer, with efficiencies of up to 30%.
Frank Van Milo, CEO of CubicPV, said: "Our advantage lies in the low-cost manufacturing method, which makes the product economical. Perovskite cells can extract more energy from the sun. I believe that in the next 10 years, the entire industry will Will move to tandem."
British perovskite solar cell manufacturer Oxford Photovoltaics is also producing perovskite-silicon tandem cells and claims that its own tandem cells can achieve 28% efficiency, and will next develop a multilayer cell with 37% efficiency. Oxford Photovoltaics said that because the tandem cells provide higher energy density, the initial price will be higher than that of traditional silicon-based cells, but from the perspective of the entire service life, it is quite economical.
Caltech spin-off Caelux, which is also working on commercializing tandem cells, is working with silicon-based module companies to add a layer of perovskite glass to conventional modules to boost efficiency by 30 percent or more.

Commercialization faces many challenges

However, perovskite cells face cost, durability, and environmental challenges before reaching the market.
Martin Green, a solar cell researcher at the University of New South Wales in Australia, said: "The big question is whether the perovskite-silicon tandem cells are stable enough to be commercially viable. According to public data, even if the tandem cells are carefully packaged, they can only Store outdoors for several months."
In this regard, Chris Case, chief technology officer of Oxford Photovoltaics, said that its perovskite-silicon tandem cell demonstration version has passed the accelerated stress test that predicts the service life of solar modules, and the design life can reach 25 to 30 years.
European perovskite technology company Evolar launched reliability tests of its encapsulated, semi-transparent standalone perovskite modules last year. The results showed that the batteries could last up to 25 years if deployed outdoors. It is worth mentioning that First Solar, the largest solar energy company in the United States, recently acquired Evolar for US$38 million, aiming to boost the commercialization of its perovskite battery technology.
It is understood that Evolar uses a unique evaporation technology to coat the perovskite thin film layer, which can increase the battery energy by 25% at the lowest cost. At the same time, the company is also working on the commercialization of a perovskite cell production line that can be seamlessly integrated into a silicon production line as a tandem cell production upgrade.
The US CNBC news network reported that at present, many companies around the world are trying to commercialize the production of perovskite batteries. Earlier this year, Japan's Sekisui Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. and NTT Data, a subsidiary of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Co., Ltd., installed perovskite cells outside buildings in Tokyo and Osaka, aiming to test their performance over a year; An inkjet printer that can print opaque perovskite cells of various sizes and shapes that can be mounted on ordinary glass in windows, walls, balconies and other surfaces.
Perovskite-based cells are expected to account for more than half of the solar cell market by 2030, said Miyazaka Riki, a professor of photoelectrochemistry and energy at Toin University of Yokohama in Japan.