Common classifications of batteries for solar street lights
The solar street lamp batteries currently used in the market mainly include lead-acid batteries, gel batteries, ternary lithium-ion batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries.
1. Lead-acid batteries: The plates of lead-acid batteries are made of lead and lead oxides, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. The important advantages of lead-acid batteries are that the voltage is relatively stable, the price is relatively cheap, and the safety is high. At present, it still occupies a dominant position in the use of the solar street light industry.
Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries occupies a dominant position in the use of batteries in the solar street lamp industry
2. Gel battery: It is equivalent to an upgraded version of lead-acid battery, maintenance-free and less maintenance. The important thing is that the colloidal electrolyte replaces the sulfuric acid electrolyte internally, which improves the storage capacity, discharge capacity, safety performance and life span; in addition; The full name of its temperature is more widely used. The colloidal battery can be used in the temperature range of -40°C to 65°C. The low temperature performance is better. In the northern alpine area or the tropical area with higher temperature, the colloidal battery is the best The choice; its seismic performance is also very good, can be used safely under various harsh conditions, and the service life is double or even more than that of ordinary lead-acid batteries.
3. Ternary lithium-ion battery: The ternary lithium-ion battery has many advantages, such as high specific energy, small size, fast charging, and high price. Its deep cycle times are about 500-800 times, and its life span is similar to that of gel batteries, and the temperature range for use is -15°C-45°C. However, ternary lithium-ion batteries also have disadvantages and poor safety. If the battery is not stable inside, or is a ternary lithium-ion battery produced by an unqualified manufacturer, it is most likely to be in the overcharge process or in a high temperature environment. An explosion may occur.
4. Lithium iron phosphate battery: high specific energy, small size, fast charging, good stability, wide temperature range, but the price is the highest among all batteries. At present, due to its cost, it has not been widely used.
How to choose batteries for solar street lights
Since lead-acid batteries (or valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, valve-regulated batteries) still dominate the use of solar energy systems, we will focus on the principles of their selection
The purpose of the solar street lamp battery is to store the electric energy generated by the solar panel components, and release the energy to meet the needs of street lamp lighting when the light is insufficient or the night is illuminated. The selection of battery capacity generally follows the following principles:
1. The storage battery should match the solar panel and electric load (street lamp). The battery capacity is too small to meet the requirements of night lighting. If the capacity is too large and cannot be effectively charged, the battery will always be in a state of power loss.
2. The power of the solar panel must be more than 4 times higher than the load power for the system to work normally; the voltage must exceed the working voltage of the battery by 20%-30% to ensure that the battery is normal.
3. The capacity of the battery must be more than 6 times higher than the daily consumption of the load.
4. How to maintain the battery later
In the same process of use, we must also carry out reasonable maintenance on the battery in order to better exert its performance and extend its life.
Only reasonable maintenance of the battery during use can exert its function and prolong its life.
1. To prevent overcharging
In addition to the external maintenance, the battery life of solar street lights is also closely related to the internal heat accumulation. If the solar battery is overcharged, the temperature inside the battery will rise step by step, causing thermal runaway. If it is serious, it may greatly shorten the life of the battery, or even make the battery useless. If we want to prevent the battery from overcharging, it is necessary to supply the charging voltage value strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
2. To prevent insufficient charging
In addition to preventing overcharging, solar cells must also prevent undercharging. If the charging has been insufficient, it may also be caused by a problem with the rack system or a low voltage. Frequent under-charging will reduce the number of cycles of the battery and also shorten the life of the battery.
3. To prevent over-discharge
The depth of discharge of the battery is closely related to the number of charge and discharge cycles (service life) of the battery design. If the over-discharge is serious, the life of the battery will be shorter. If it is serious, it may cause the battery to be unable to activate to the best state, or even be scrapped all at once.
4. Control the ambient temperature
A particularly high temperature environment will shorten the life of the solar battery by half, so it is very important to control the temperature of the solar battery. The service life of the battery is relatively long in normal temperature weather, and the battery will suffer a lot in high temperature weather. If the environment is relatively harsh, with extremely low or extremely high temperatures, it is best to choose a gel battery with a wider temperature range when choosing a battery.
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