Both sodium and lithium batteries are rechargeable batteries, but there are some differences and advantages between them:
The chemical composition is different: the positive electrode material used in sodium batteries is a sodium compound, while lithium compounds are used as the positive electrode material in lithium batteries. In contrast, sodium is more widely available and cheap, while lithium is scarce and expensive.
Energy density difference: The energy density of sodium batteries is about half that of lithium batteries, which means that they are usually larger and heavier than lithium batteries of the same capacity. However, the energy density of sodium batteries is gradually increasing and may be equal to or surpass that of lithium batteries in the future.
Environmental protection: Sodium batteries use more abundant resources, so they have more advantages than lithium batteries in terms of environmental protection. At the same time, since most of the chemical components used in sodium batteries are non-toxic and renewable, the waste generated is less polluting to the environment.
Safety: The electrolyte of sodium batteries is very flammable and corrosive, so higher safety requirements are required in design and manufacture. Lithium batteries are relatively stable, but there are also safety hazards such as overheating, short circuit and explosion.
Different application scenarios: due to its low energy density, sodium batteries are usually used in occasions that do not require high weight and volume, such as energy storage systems, industrial vehicles, etc. Lithium-ion batteries are more suitable for lightweight, high-efficiency, and high-performance applications, such as mobile devices and electric vehicles.
To sum up, sodium batteries and lithium batteries have their own advantages and disadvantages, and which one is better depends on the application scenario and actual needs. In the future, as sodium battery technology continues to develop, it may become a more competitive renewable energy solution.