There are two mainstream battery technology routes for new energy vehicles, lithium iron phosphate batteries and ternary lithium batteries. Although these two batteries compete in many application fields, the main line of competition in the field of new energy vehicles is because of this. It is the largest lithium battery application scenario in China. Since there is competition, there must be comparisons. The comparison of battery cost performance can be carried out through the price of the car. In terms of performance, the comparison between the ternary lithium battery and the lithium iron phosphate battery is better. Set the conditions and get the actual parameters of the two batteries to illustrate. According to the experiments of related laboratories, new energy vehicle manufacturers, and power battery manufacturers, although each test inevitably has subtle differences in specific parameters, the judgment of the pros and cons of the two batteries tends to be consistent. To this end, we take representative parameters for comparison.
1. Choose BYD for bus and Tesla for sedan. This is the difference in volume between the two. Judging from the current technology, the energy density of ternary lithium batteries is generally 200Wh/kg, and may reach 300Wh/kg in the future; while lithium iron phosphate batteries are currently basically hovering at 100~110Wh/kg, and individual ones can reach 130~150Wh /kg, but it is very difficult to break through 200Wh/kg. Therefore, ternary material power batteries can provide twice as much space as lithium iron phosphate, which is very important for cars with limited space. Tesla produces ternary lithium batteries, and BYD produces lithium iron phosphate batteries, so there is a saying that “BYD is chosen for passenger cars and Tesla is chosen for cars”.
2. Also because of the high energy density, the weight is much smaller, the light weight and the small footprint determine that the ternary lithium battery new energy vehicle consumes less power, so it is faster and has a stronger endurance. Therefore, cars using ternary lithium batteries can run farther, while lithium iron phosphate new energy vehicles are basically used for city buses at present, because they have a short battery life and need to be charged with a charging pile within a short distance.
3. Although the lithium iron phosphate battery is resistant to high temperatures, the ternary lithium battery has better low temperature resistance. It is the main technical route for manufacturing low temperature lithium batteries. At minus 20 °C, the ternary lithium battery can release 70.14% of the capacity, and Lithium iron phosphate batteries can only release 54.94% of the capacity, and because under low temperature conditions, the discharge platform of ternary lithium batteries is much higher than the voltage platform of lithium iron phosphate batteries and starts faster.
4. The charging efficiency is higher with ternary lithium battery. Lithium battery charging adopts current-limiting and voltage-limiting method, that is, constant current charging is performed in the first stage. At this time, the current is large and the efficiency is high. After the constant current charging reaches a certain voltage, it enters the second stage of constant voltage charging. At this time, the current is small and the efficiency is low. Therefore, to measure the charging efficiency of the two, the ratio of the constant current charging power to the total battery capacity is called the constant current ratio. The experimental data shows that there is little difference between the two when charging under 10C, but it will open the distance above 10C. When charging at 20C, the constant current ratio of the ternary lithium battery is 52.75%, and the constant current ratio of the lithium iron phosphate battery is 10.08 %, the former is 5 times that of the latter.
5. In terms of cycle life, the lithium iron phosphate battery is better than the ternary lithium battery. The theoretical life of the ternary lithium battery is 2000 times, and the capacity is reduced to 60%; even the best brand in the industry, Tesla, can maintain 70 times after 3000 times. % Of electricity, while the lithium iron phosphate battery has 80% capacity after the same cycle.
The comparison of the above five aspects can roughly conclude that the relative advantages of the two help to answer the question which is better for ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries: lithium iron phosphate batteries are safe, long-lived, and resistant to high temperatures; weight of ternary lithium batteries Light weight, high charging efficiency, and low temperature resistance, the self-adaptability of the two and the coexistence of the two heroes is the reason for the difference between the two.
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