The pole piece production process: In these processes, the domestic mainstream lithium iron phosphate system, or even the ternary system, does not have relatively large pollution. Of course, the ternary system may still have some pollution with lithium cobalt oxide. Yes, for example, cobalt, manganese, and nickel are all heavy metals, but they are relatively environmentally friendly. Among them, lithium iron phosphate is the most environmentally friendly. The remaining part, except for the pollution of the materials mentioned above, the solvent in the injection is mainly cyclic/chain carbonate or carboxylic acid ester. The solute is mainly lithium salt lithium hexafluorophosphate, and the additives are mainly film-forming additives, flame retardant additives, conductive additives, and additives for improving low-temperature discharge. The pollution in the whole process is okay. Of course, chemical agents, if you don't pay attention to their control, will definitely pollute the environment. As for the final packaging and formation, the pollution is even smaller.
3. Let’s talk about the recycling part for lithium cobalt oxide and the ternary system. Of course, recycling is still necessary, after all, it contains heavy metals. However, lithium iron phosphate, except for the internal electrolyte, is basically harmless. Compared with other batteries, it does not produce any toxic and harmful metal elements and substances such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, so the pollution is relatively small. However, the substances in waste lithium-ion batteries entering the environment can still cause heavy metal nickel, cobalt pollution (including arsenic), fluorine pollution, organic pollution, dust and acid-base pollution. The electrolytes and conversion products of waste lithium ion batteries, such as LiPF6, LiAsF6, LiCF3S03, HF, P201, etc., solvents and their decomposition and hydrolysis products, such as DME, methanol, formic acid, etc., are all toxic and hazardous substances. Send the battery to a qualified place for unified disposal, do not discard it randomly.
1. Positive and negative current collectors. Generally, aluminum foil is used for the positive electrode, and copper foil is used for the negative electrode. It is also possible to weld some nickel tapes for connection and conduction. These are basically non-toxic. Some waste lithium battery recycling units appearing now rely on recycling these and steel shells and aluminum shells to make money. Label: Recyclable, no pollution. 2. The negative electrode is generally graphite, and a few may be lithium titanate or silicon-based materials. Of course, tin-based negative electrodes are also available, but they are too damn high-end and no one uses them now. Graphite is divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite. Natural graphite comes from graphite ore and then undergoes some processing. The mining of this natural graphite has serious pollution, mainly due to damage to the respiratory tract. You can search for it; artificial graphite, It is made of high-temperature graphitization of macromolecules such as petroleum coke or pitch, which is basically pollution-free. There are some recovery methods for graphite flotation in lithium batteries, but I don’t know how it’s applied now, and they can definitely be recovered. The production process of lithium titanate is unclear. The silicon-based negative electrode is basically pollution-free. According to the largest amount of graphite for evaluation. Label: Moderate pollution, unclear recovery status. 3. Positive electrode: The current positive electrodes include lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganate, ternary materials, lithium cobalt oxide, and lithium nickel cobalt aluminate. Lithium iron phosphate is generally used as a car battery or energy storage battery and is non-toxic. Lithium manganese oxide, electric bicycle battery, non-toxic. Ternary material: Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, widely used, electric bicycles, electronic products, model airplanes, etc. Cobalt is toxic. Lithium cobalt oxide, digital products, mobile phones, pads, etc., moderately toxic. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminate: Unknown, the guess is the same as lithium nickel cobalt manganate. 4. The electrolyte is composed of organic solvents and lithium salts. Organic solvents generally include PC, EC, DEC, DMC, DME, etc., among which DMC is mild, and the others are non-toxic. Lithium salt is lithium hexafluorophosphate (the most used, and there are other lithium salts). It will hydrolyze to produce HF when it meets water, which is toxic. 5. There are several types of shells: aluminum shell, steel shell, plastic shell, aluminum plastic film. Among them, aluminum shell and steel shell are non-toxic. Plastic shell and aluminum plastic film are white pollution. 6. Diaphragm, generally a microporous film of polyolefin, PP, PE, white pollution. 7. Adhesives. At present, there are generally styrene butadiene rubber SBR, polyvinylidene fluoride PVdF, and some acrylic adhesives. Think of these as white pollution. In addition, the materials used in the lithium battery processing process are mainly NMP (micro-toxic), which is used as a solvent for the positive and negative electrodes, and evaporates during the manufacturing process. Enterprises need to control their emissions and recycle them. In my opinion, there are three main types of pollution problems in lithium batteries: First, the pollution caused by cleaning the anode and cathode pulping equipment and coating equipment during the production process. These two include cathode and anode materials, NMP, glue and other materials. , Some companies do not control well (malicious speculation and do not want to control) leading to the leakage of toxic wastewater. The first point one. Cleaning the supplies used for electrolyte injection during the production process may cause electrolyte-containing water to flow into the sewer. Under normal circumstances, technical research and development personnel are likely to discharge water directly into the sewer. Second, the NMP recovery is not complete. Third, there are indeed very few lithium batteries circulating in the market that are recycled. First, the pollution of lithium batteries is small, and everyone is not paying enough attention to them; second, the revenue of lithium battery recycling is low. As a result, lithium batteries do not have the same large-scale recycling applications as lead-acid batteries, but are more like nickel-metal hydride batteries. There are only a few slogans such as "Don't discard batteries at will."
Misunderstanding 1: Lithium-ion batteries (used in digital consumer products, notebooks, electric motorcycles, plug-in hybrid cars, pure electric buses, etc.) are more environmentally friendly than lead-acid. Misunderstanding 2: Lead-acid batteries are more toxic than lithium-ion batteries. At present, lithium-ion batteries are getting closer to civilian life, mainly due to the popularization of mobile phone digital electronic products. The application of lithium-ion batteries is gradually expanding to electric bicycles, hybrid cars, etc. The original lead-acid battery market is gradually being eroded by lithium batteries. , But it cannot be completely replaced. Although every household has a lot of lithium-ion batteries (disused mobile phone batteries, etc.), their recycling is currently limited to manufacturing companies. The main materials are lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel cobalt manganate, the precious metals cobalt nickel, negative graphite, and Fluid aluminum, copper (ultra-high purity), shell, etc. Just like the recycling of waste products seen on the streets and alleys, people will recycle the value, but the pollution has not been reduced at all. At present, lithium-ion batteries are liquid electrolytes, that is, a variety of organic solvents, lithium salts and other components, many of which are toxic and harmful or even carcinogenic; in the future, solid-state electrolyte lithium-ion batteries may become popular, which is another story. Compared with lead-acid, everyone knows that electric bicycle sellers are very enthusiastic about recycling lead-acid batteries and the people are also very happy. The reason is that the recycling of maintenance-free lead-acid batteries is very mature, and the society and enterprises have fulfilled their obligations and obligations. responsibility. On the user side, as long as there is no damage, there will be no pollution. The same is true for the production of lead-acid batteries. The main pollutant is lead powder, which will not be poisoned without contact or inhalation; the electrolyte is a water solvent, sulfuric acid. On the other hand, lead-acid enterprises have formed an oligopoly after the country's vigorous rectification, and the quality of their products is relatively reliable. Lithium battery companies are uneven. Everyone should have experienced mobile phone battery gas bulging, sudden capacity reduction, ultra-short life and other similar situations, and even explosion accidents. Once lithium-ion batteries are overcharged and over-discharged, they are easily affected. There is a danger of burning. The manufacturing process is also the same. The toxicity of organic solvents causes sewage, dust pollution, and multiple fire accidents. . . In short, the lithium battery industry has gradually formed a scale. In the future, the government will improve and integrate a little bit.
1. The battery has been scrapped and cannot be saved.
2. Once the lithium battery is activated and used, it must maintain a certain amount of power in the battery. If the power in the lithium battery is completely exhausted, it can no longer be charged and is scrapped. When the lithium battery is used in various electrical appliances Although it indicates that the battery is running out, there is still a part of the remaining battery, usually 5%-10%. This is a protection measure for lithium batteries to prevent the battery from being completely used up. The rechargeable batteries all have self-discharge, even if they are not used, they will slowly run out. Once the battery is completely exhausted, it can no longer be charged, and it can only be used after reactivation. The activation process of the lithium battery needs to be completed in a special environment, and ordinary charging can never activate the lithium battery. Only the manufacturer of the rechargeable battery can complete the activation of the lithium battery, but the manufacturer will never activate an old battery, because the cost of activating an old battery is not lower than that of producing a new battery.
3. Only new batteries can be purchased.
The battery should be over-discharged. You can find a 4V power supply to connect the positive and negative poles of the battery, charge it for 10 minutes, and then charge it on the charger. If it doesn’t work, the battery is broken;
If the lithium battery is not used for too long, it will be broken. In your case, even if the battery can be charged, its usefulness will be greatly reduced. Because the battery is over-discharged, the impact on the battery is huge, the capacity is greatly reduced, and the internal resistance is greatly increased. , I have two cellphones that are broken, one BL-5B, brand new and unused, after taking a look, the capacity has not changed much, but the internal resistance is huge, it can’t be used, and the other is also a brand new original BL-5B battery. After half a year, the internal resistance has also increased. Fortunately, it can still be used normally; I have an 18650 lithium battery. I over-discharged it. The original measured capacity was more than 2600. After over-discharge, the measured capacity was only 2100, but it was over-discharged once. Decrease 5 points by one,
Like your battery, it’s over-discharged and stored for too long, so there is little chance that it can be reused
"Battery" can be recycled.
According to environmental protection experts, for every 1,000 grams of metal recovered from waste batteries, there are 82 grams of mercury and 88 grams of cadmium. It can be said that the recycling and disposal of waste batteries not only deal with pollution sources, but also realize the recycling and reuse of resources. Foreign developed countries attach great importance to the recycling and utilization of waste batteries
Many countries in Western Europe have set up special waste battery recycling bins not only in shops, but also directly on the streets. 95% of the materials in waste batteries can be recycled, especially heavy metals with a high recycling value. For example, the foreign secondary lead industry is developing rapidly, and 55% of the existing lead production volume comes from secondary lead. In the recycled lead industry, the recycling of waste lead batteries occupies a large proportion. 100 kilograms of waste lead batteries can recycle 50-60 kilograms of lead.
For the regeneration treatment of cadmium-containing waste batteries, there are relatively mature technologies abroad. When 100 kilograms of cadmium-containing waste batteries can be recycled, about 20 kilograms of metal cadmium can be recycled. For mercury-containing batteries, environmentally sound treatment methods are mainly used to prevent them from polluting the environment.
It is reported that the United Nations Environment Program is promoting the new concept of "life cycle economy" all over the world. It divides a commodity "from cradle to grave" into multiple stages, namely: raw material acquisition, manufacturing process, transportation, sales, use, maintenance, recycling, and final disposal. At each stage, environmental management must be strengthened . Both manufacturers and consumers are responsible for their actions. Manufacturers must consider environmental protection requirements when formulating production plans, developing new products, and recycling discarded products. Consumers must not cause harm to the environment when purchasing, using and discarding products. . my country is currently quite weak in the environmental management of waste batteries.
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