However, the fact is that improper production and recycling of lithium-ion batteries can also cause pollution. According to the current development speed of new energy vehicles, if we do not carry out industrialization research and accumulation of power lithium-ion battery recycling as soon as possible, in a few decades, our children and grandchildren may live in an environment full of waste batteries and electric vehicles.
How do lithium-ion batteries get out of the old path of "pollution first, then treatment"?
Face up to the pollution problem of lithium-ion batteries
At present, in the global electric vehicle market (excluding fuel-powered lithium battery vehicles), the main types of power lithium-ion batteries include lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganate, lithium cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt manganese (ternary), etc. After retirement, these batteries , Will become a potential "pollution source".
Lithium-ion batteries do not contain mercury, cadmium, lead and other toxic heavy metal elements, but the positive and negative materials, electrolyte solutions and other substances of lithium-ion batteries still have a great impact on the environment and human health. Therefore, if ordinary garbage disposal methods (including landfill, incineration, composting, etc.) are used for waste lithium-ion batteries, the metals such as cobalt, nickel, lithium, manganese, and inorganic and organic compounds will cause damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. Severe pollution is extremely harmful. If the substances in waste lithium-ion batteries enter the environment, they can cause heavy metal nickel and cobalt pollution (including arsenic), fluorine pollution, organic pollution, dust and acid-base pollution. The electrolyte and conversion products of waste lithium ion batteries, such as LiPF6, LiAsF6, LiCF3SO3, HF, P2O5, etc., solvents and their decomposition and hydrolysis products, such as DME, methanol, formic acid, etc., are all toxic and hazardous substances that can cause personal injury. even death.
According to statistics from relevant media, if the electric vehicle market stock exceeds 5 million by 2020, it is estimated that about 100 million kWh (1000GWh) of lithium-ion batteries will enter the automotive market if one car is equipped with an average of 20kWh batteries. If the recycling process is improper, the environmental hazard caused will be several times that of dry batteries and lead-acid batteries.
However, how to reasonably recycle and utilize the power lithium-ion batteries from the decommissioning of automobiles cannot be considered and planned after the development of the electric vehicle market. At present, research and practice in various aspects of technology, market, industry, policy, environmental protection, etc., to improve the relevant supporting measures for the market after the improvement of power lithium-ion batteries is imminent.
It is important to conduct industrialization research and accumulation as soon as possible
At this stage, in the recycling of power lithium-ion batteries, "cascade utilization" is a greener and more environmentally-friendly approach considered by the government and industry insiders, which can not only maximize the value of products, but also maximize the benefits of the circular economy.
Academic research on the echelon utilization of power lithium-ion batteries is also in full swing.
At present, there are still difficulties in achieving cascading utilization. The important manifestations are the imperfect market mechanism and imperfect policies and regulations; lack of historical data; the uncertainty of cascading utilization scenarios; the difficulty of battery disassembly and the high cost and high risk of reorganization; Hidden safety hazards increase after cascading use, and so on.
To realize the cascaded utilization of power lithium-ion batteries, a full life cycle monitoring system for power lithium-ion batteries must be established to assess the health of the battery in real time. It is necessary to put the evaluation and monitoring of the battery in the whole life cycle of the battery, instead of waiting for the battery to be eliminated before testing and screening.
Regarding the way to achieve full life cycle monitoring, the battery must be coded from the production line so that it has a unique "identity card." The battery has been monitored since then, including every link of production and use, and the monitoring system monitors and evaluates it from time to time. During the monitoring process, the system will evaluate the health of the battery and obtain data based on the entire evaluation system. These data are executable, unique and comprehensive, and can be traced throughout.
The assessment of the battery condition by the monitoring system is the same as the assessment of the health status of a person by a health doctor. After the battery undergoes a health assessment, and then goes through an intermediate integration process, it can be correctly matched to scenarios that can be used in cascades, including high-end areas such as wind and solar energy storage, and low-end areas such as home energy storage.